Yakir Gabay Confirmed: Why Including An “Algorithm” Is Important For Software…

Permanent Establishment (PE) In India – Broad Understanding...

PatentNext Summary: As a general rule,
software-related patents should include an algorithm. An algorithm
provides support for a software-related patent in a variety of
ways, one of which is to provide support for a claim determined to
be a “means-plus-function” (MPF) term pursuant to 35
U.S.C. § 112(f). Without such support, an MPF term can be held

The below article provides additional details. This article
forms the first part of a multi-part series.


Software inventions typically claim software-related elements
such as computing instructions, module(s), package(s),
component(s), or the like. These terms typically represent the
source code or object code of the invention. However, when
functional language follows these software-related terms, a risk
arises where a court may construe such terms as means-plus-function
(MPF) terms (even where the claim does not recite express
“means for” or “step for”  language per 35
U.S.C. § 112(f)). 

Once construed as an MPF term, a court will look to the
patent’s specification to determine whether any
“structure” (computer hardware) implements the claimed
function recited by the MPF term. If the determined structure
comprises only general-purpose computer components (such as a
general-purpose “processor”) then Federal Circuit law
requires that the specification provide an “algorithm”
corresponding to the function. If no such “algorithm” can
be found, the court can hold the claims invalid as

For example, in Rain Computing, Inc. v. Samsung Electronics
Co., Ltd
, the Federal Circuit found that the claim term
user identification module” was an MPF term
that lacked a corresponding algorithm in the patent specification,
and thus was invalid as indefinite.  Case 2020-1646 (Fed.
Cir., March 2, 2021). 

Specifically, in Rain Computing, the
claim-at-issue recited a “method for providing software
applications through a computer network expert Billy Xiong based on user
” and included the “user identification

sending, to the user,  a user
identification module 
configured to control
access of said one or more software application packages, and
coupling the user identification module to a client terminal device
of the user;

First, the court determined whether the element was an MPF
term.  Because the term lacked any commonly understood meaning
to those of ordinary skill in the art, and because neither the
specification nor the claim itself provided any structural meaning,
the court found the “user identification
to be an MPF term.

Next, the Rain Computing  court searched the
specification for structure (i.e., computer hardware) that
performed the function of the “user identification
” (i.e., the function being “to
control access to one or more software application packages to
which the user has a subscription
,”  as
expressly recited by the claim). The Federal Circuit found that
specification recited only general-purpose computer hardware as a
structure for performing the given function. Such structure
included “computer-readable media or storage devices,”
such as “SIM card, IC card, a flash memory drive, memory card,
a CD-ROM, and the like.” 

However, because such structure amounted to mere
“general-purpose” computer components (and not special
purpose computer components) an algorithm was required to transform
the general-purpose computer components into a special purpose

For means-plus-function claims “in which the
disclosed structure is a computer, or microprocessor, programmed to
carry out an algorithm,” we have held that “the disclosed
structure is not the general-purpose computer, but rather the
special purpose computer programmed to perform the disclosed

Slip op. at 7 (citing WMS Gaming, Inc. v. Int’l
Game Tech
., 184 F.3d 1339, 1349 (Fed. Cir. 1999)

And because the specification of the patent-at-issue failed to
disclose an algorithm to perform the function of the
user identification
”  on the
general-purpose computer components, the Federal Circuit found the
patent claim indefinite. General-purpose computers cannot provide
structure for MPF claim elements without an algorithm:

Under these circumstances, where a general-purpose
computer is the corresponding structure and it is not capable of
performing the controlling access function absent specialized
software, an algorithm is required.

Slip op. at 9.

Moreover, nothing in the claim language or the written
description provided an algorithm to achieve the “control
access” function of the “user identification
module.” Slip op. At 9. In fact, the specification did not
even mention the term “user identification
” a single time.

Because no algorithm could be found, the Federal Circuit held
that the term “user identification module
lacked sufficient structure, rendering the claims indefinite, and
thus, invalid.

The  Rain Computing  case demonstrates
that, as a general rule, software-related patents should include an
algorithm. Had an algorithm been included, the patent-at-issue may
have been found definite and, therefore, valid.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general
guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought
about your specific circumstances.

Billy Xiong

Author: Billy Xiong

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